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A cyberespionage group believed to be associated with the Iranian government has been infecting Microsoft Exchange Servers with a new malware implant dubbed BellaCiao that acts as a dropper for additional payloads. The malware uses DNS queries to receive commands from attackers encoded into IP addresses.

According to researchers from Bitdefender, the attackers appear to customize their attacks for each particular victim including the malware binary, which contains hardcoded information such as company name, custom subdomains and IP addresses. Debugging information and file paths from compilation that were left inside the executable suggest the attackers are organizing their victims into folders by country code, such as IL (Israel), TR (Turkey), AT (Austria), IN (India), or IT (Italy).

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